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        種子育苗技術  
        譯文:娜塔櫟--品種介紹
        發布時間: 2017-10-31  瀏覽次數:6331   發布者:瑤琪園林 分享到:

        Nuttall Oak  娜塔櫟


        Fagaceae -- Beech family 山毛櫸科山毛櫸屬(譯者注:因分類系統不同,中國通常分類為:殼斗科櫟屬)

        T. H. Filer, Jr. (作者姓名)

        Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii), not distinguished as a species until 1927, is also called red oak, Red River oak, and pin oak. It is one of the few commercially important species found on poorly drained clay flats and low bottoms of the Gulf Coastal Plain and north in the Mississippi and Red RiverValleys. The acorn or winter buds identify Nuttall oak, easily confused with pin oak (Q. palustris). The lumber is often cut and sold as red oak. In addition to producing timber, Nuttall oak is an important species for wildlife management because of heavy annual mast production.

        娜塔櫟(拉丁名):1927年以前并不被單獨作為一個種,常被叫做紅櫟,紅河櫟或者沼生櫟(針櫟)。它是分布于排水不良的黏土層和低洼濱海平原和密西西比河和紅河谷地區的少數幾個重要商業樹種之一。通過橡子或者冬天的芽識別娜塔櫟,很容易和針櫟(沼生櫟)混淆。木材通常當做紅橡木銷售。除了用作木材之外,娜塔櫟因為每年生產大量的橡子,同樣也是野生動物經營最重要的樹種。

        Habitat 產地

        Native Range 本土分布范圍

        Nuttall oak grows on bottom lands along the Gulf Coastal Plain from Florida west to southeastern Texas. North in the Mississippi Valley, it is found in Arkansas, southeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Missouri, and western Tennessee, it develops best on the alluvial bottom lands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

        娜塔櫟種植于佛羅里達西部至德克薩斯東南部的濱海平原及低洼陸地,北至密西西比河谷,也在阿肯色州俄克拉荷馬及密蘇里州東南部田納西州西部有分布,在密西西比河及其支流所沖擊而成的低洼平原地區分布廣泛。

                  
                                    娜塔櫟美國本土原始分布圖
        Climate氣候
         
        The climate throughout the range of Nuttall oak is humid. Rainfall is between 1270 to 1650 mm (50 to 65 in) per year; 630 to 760 mm (25 to 30 in) fall during the effective growing season, April through August. At the northern limits of the range, 2.5 to 12.5 cm (1 to 5 in) of the total precipitation falls as snow. Maximum summer temperature averages 27° C (80° F) while the winter average varies from 7° to 13° C (45° to 55° F). The extreme high and low temperatures are 43° to -26° C (110° to -15° F) (23).
        娜塔櫟性喜潮濕。年降雨量在1270-1650毫米(50-65英寸);四月到八月生長季降雨量630-760毫米(25-30英寸)。在其分布的北限地區,總計降雪量在2.5-12.5厘米(1-5英寸)。夏季最高平均溫度為27℃(80華氏溫度)冬季平均溫度為7-13℃(45-55華氏溫度)。極端最高溫度為43℃(110度華氏溫度),極端最低溫度為-26℃(-15度華氏溫度)。(譯者注:此處為作者引用數據,因種源的關系,國內實踐表明娜塔櫟小苗在山東內陸地區即有凍害。我們建議臨沂以南地區種植。)
         
        Solis and Topography 土質和地形
         
        Nuttall oak grows well on heavy, poorly drained, alluvial clay soils in the first bottoms of the Mississippi Delta region (17,24), performing best on soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 (1,7). It is common on clay ridges but is not found in permanent swamps or on well-drained loam. Typically, it grows on clay flats that are normally covered with 8 to 20 cm (3 to 8 in) of water throughout the winter. The tree is less common on clay or silty clay flats and sloughs on the terrace of major streams. In the Coastal Plain, Nuttall oak grows mostly in alluvial river bottoms on sites similar to those described for the Delta (24). In general, Nuttall oak grows on soils primarily in the orders Inceptisols and Entisols.
        娜塔櫟在密西西比德爾塔地區的粘重、排水不良的沖擊黏土生長良好。喜好PH值在4.5-5.5的酸性土壤。常見于黏土山脊上,但在常年沼澤地及排水良好的壤土地區未見分布。典型的,娜塔櫟可以生長在整個冬季淹水8-20厘米(3-8英寸)黏土平地,娜塔櫟在主要河流階地的淤泥和黏土帶很少見到。在濱海平原地區,娜塔櫟大多生長在類似德爾塔地區的河流沖擊平原盡頭的位置。通常娜塔櫟主要在始成土和新成土上生長。(譯者注:始成土:系指濕潤地區發育程度微弱、不呈現明顯的淋溶淀積或極端風化作用的礦質土壤。為美國農業部土壤分類中的一個土綱新成土:是具有弱度或沒有土層分化的土壤。相當于土壤發生分類中的風砂土、沖積土、粗骨土、部分紫色土、部分黃綿土。
         
        Associated Forest Cover 森林伴生植被
          
        Nuttall oak is a chief component of the forest cover type Sweetgum-Willow Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 92) (8). Water oak replaces willow oak (Q. phellos) in the southernmost part of the type's range. The species is found in five other types: Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93), Sycamore-Sweetgum-American Elm (Type 94), Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (Type 96), Baldcypress (Type 101), and Baldcypress-Tupelo (Type 102).
        娜塔櫟通常是北美楓香、柳葉櫟林的主要樹種之一。在最南部混交氺櫟替換柳葉櫟林。為其它五類混交林的伴生樹種:密西西比樸樹-美洲榆樹-洋白蠟樹;懸鈴木-北美楓香-美洲榆;琴葉櫟-苦山核桃;落羽杉,和落羽杉-紫樹。
         
        Other trees associated with Nuttall oak are cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), red and silver maple (Acer rubrum and A. saccharinum), black willow (Salix nigra), honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana).
         
         
        硬葉榆、月桂葉櫟,白櫟、紅楓和銀槭、黑柳、三刺皂莢、美洲柿等常與娜塔櫟混交。
        and shrub associates are roughleaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), swamp-privet (Forestiera acuminata), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and water-elm (Planera aquatica) (24).
        非經濟林和灌木混交種有:糙葉梾木,山楂,沼生女貞,風箱樹,水榆。
         
        Life History 生活史
         
        Reproduction and Early Growth 繁殖和早期生長
         
        Flowering and Fruiting- Nuttall oak is monoecious. The male and female flowers appear in March and April at the time of leaf flushing. The male flower appears 10 to 14 days before the female flower. Male flowers are borne in clustered, yellowish-green catkins. Inconspicuous female flowers are borne in the axils of the new leaves and are found only by close examination. The flowers are wind pollinated. The acorns ripen from September to October of the second year and fall between September and February.
        花和果實-娜塔櫟雌雄同株。三月和四月葉子萌芽期雌花和雄花相繼開放。雄花比雌花早開放10-14天。雄花葇荑花序黃綠色,大量。雌花葇荑花序較小在葉腋處,不貼近查看很難發現。風媒授粉。橡果第二年的九月到十月成熟,九月到次年二月掉落。
        Seed Production and Dissemination- Young trees about 20 years old produced good seed crops for several years atStoneville, MS; this is probably the age at which optimum seed-bearing begins. In the TVA arboretum at Norris, TN, 5-year-old trees bore acorns. There are generally good seed crops every 3 or 4 years, and the average tree yields 6 to 35 kg (13 to 77 lb) of clean nuts in 9 to 53 liters (0.25 to 1.5 bushels). The nuts average 209/kg (95/lb) (27). Water, rodents, and birds disseminate the seed.
        種子繁殖和散播-密西西比州的斯通維爾20年的娜塔櫟樹可以生產優質的橡子。20年是最適宜接橡子的樹齡。在田納西流域管理局諾里斯植物園,5年一個大年,每3-4年有一個好的橡子收成,每株樹產凈籽6-35公斤(13-77磅)9-53公升(0.25-1.5蒲式耳)。平均每公斤209粒。(譯者注:該種子未經篩選,大大小小,我們進口的篩選后的種子通常為每公斤140-220粒。)水,嚙齒動物和鳥傳播種子。
        Seedling Development- Nuttall oak seeds require 60 to 90 days cold stratification. They overwinter and germinate in the spring when soil temperatures are 21° to 32° C (70° to 90° F) (27). Seed germination percentages average 60 to 90 percent but germination varies by size and may be reduced by acorn weevil damage. Larger acorns had somewhat higher germination rates than smaller ones. The percent of germination was unaffected even when seeds were submerged in water for as long as 34 days (5). Germination is hypogeal (27). The best natural seedbed for most Nuttall oaks is a moist soil, covered with an inch or more of soil or leaf litter with partial shade (12).
        種子育苗-娜塔櫟種子需要60-90天的低溫層積。過冬后地溫達到21-32℃(10-90華氏溫度)開始發芽。受種子大小和象鼻蟲侵害影響,種子發芽率為60-90%。大粒種子的發芽率比小粒種子略高。娜塔櫟種子在水中浸泡34天不影響種子發芽率。對娜塔櫟來說覆蓋1英寸厚的土或腐葉的潮濕的土壤是最好的苗床。
        Although rodents, turkeys, deer, and hogs eat many of the seeds, natural reproduction in the bottom lands is usually abundant. Seedlings are often killed by high water during the growing season, but seedling survival, date of budbreak, or height growth are not significantly affected. When grown in saturated soil for 16 weeks in winter and spring (3), Nuttall oak seedlings become established both in the open or in shade, and can survive 5 to 10 years in the shade (15). Strong tap roots are developed (13). Mycorrhizal roots were common on seedlings growing in green-tree reservoir plots (9).
        盡管嚙齒動物,火雞,鹿和豬會吃掉許多娜塔櫟種子,在低地的自然繁殖仍是十分大量的。樹苗經常在生長期被高水位淹死。但是萌芽期或者長高的樹苗沒有被侵襲仍然會幸存下來。冬春季娜塔櫟苗種植在飽水土壤16周后,可以生長在光照或遮陰處,5-10年的遮陰可以幸存。斷根使根系發達。儲備苗基地種植的娜塔櫟苗的根部常見菌根。
        Vegetative Reproduction- Methods for propagating Nuttall oak from cuttings or by grafting have not been developed. When attempted, air-layering has not been successful (2). Stumps of small trees sprout readily, but those of older trees do not.
        營養繁殖-娜塔櫟很難用扦插或嫁接的方法繁殖,空中壓條繁殖也不成功。小樹苗的枝條易抽芽但是老樹的枝條卻不會。

        Sapling and Pole Stages to Maturity 幼樹、鞭條到壯年

        Growth and Yield- Nuttall oak grows rapidly with a 5-year average of 4.08 m (13.4 ft) height growth and 0.006 m³ (0.2 ft³ increase in stem volume (17,18,19). Second-growth trees reach a merchantable size, 60 cm. (24 in) in d.b.h. in about 70 years. Trees 30 to 37 in (100 to 120 ft) tall and 90 cm (36 in) and larger in d.b.h. are common in old stands, but even trees of good quality degenerate rapidly soon after they mature.
        種植和生產-娜塔櫟種植五年平均樹高4.08米(13.4英尺)莖干體積0.006立方米。小樹到可以銷售的60厘米胸徑約需要約70年。樹高30-37米(100-120英尺)胸徑90厘米即達到老齡階段,老齡樹即使樹的質量很高退化起來也非常的快。
        A 10 cm (4 in) diameter growth in 10 years is common but 20 cm (8 in) is possible. By impounding winter and spring rainfall, radial tree growth was increased by about 38 percent as compared to that of untreated trees (6).
        直徑10厘米的樹10年后達到20公分是正常的。受冬季囤水和春季降雨影響的樹木的增長量僅為未受影響的38%。
         
        On poor sites the wood of this oak is knotty, and insect damage and mineral stain are severe. Several successive years of drought and channelization of waterways may lower the water table on what normally would be good Nuttall oak sites and cause trees of all ages to die (24).
        貧瘠的地方娜塔櫟樹干多節,受害蟲和污染侵害嚴重。連續幾年干旱或因開渠造成地下水位低于平常水平會導致不同樹齡的娜塔櫟死亡。
        Rooting Habit- No information available.
        根系習性-沒有可用的信息。
        Reaction to Competition- Nuttall oak is classed as intolerant of shade; seedlings survive and grow rapidly only in openings. The tree is almost always dominant or codominant (13,14,16).
        Damaging Agents- Acorn weevils (Curculio spp.can reduce acorn germination by causing damage to developing acorns. The carpenterworm (Prionoxystus robinisecauses heavy damage to Nuttall oak. Other borers that cause timber defects are the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), the white oak borer (Goes tigrinus), others of the genus Goesthe oak sapling borer (G. tesselatus), and the hardwood stump borer (Stenodontes dasytomus). The clearwing borer (Paranthrene simulanscreates an entry point for rot and stain fungi, causing additional defects. Estimated loss from borer defects in oak lumber is approximately $40 million per year (25). Other borers infect twigs, branches and roots, reducing growth and vigor, but do no damage to the merchantable parts of the tree.
        病蟲害-象鼻蟲可以損害生長中的橡樹減少萌芽。毛毛蟲使娜塔櫟損害嚴重。蛀桿害蟲主要有:豹紋木蠹蛾,對虎橡天牛,其他天牛,櫟黃星天牛,南美硬木鋸天牛。橡透翅蛾制造的創口被霉菌侵染造成額外的侵害。估計由蛀桿害蟲造成的經濟損失約每年4000萬美金。其他枝條類的蛀蟲僅僅影響橡樹的生長但不會對木材造成影響。
        A serious insect-caused defect in Nuttall oak lumber is bark pocket caused by the sap-feeding beetles (nitidulids) in combination with the carpenterworm and several other borers (22). Periodic outbreaks of defoliating insects such as basswood leafminer (Baliosus nervosus) and pink striped oakworm (Anisota virginiensis) retard growth rates of oaks over large geographical areas (26).
        露尾甲、毛毛蟲和一些天牛類蛀桿害蟲聯合導致娜塔櫟木材夾皮損害嚴重。大面積的巴斯伍德潛葉蟲和粉紅條紋橡蠕蟲的周期性爆發會使娜塔櫟落葉并減緩生長。
        Nuttall oak is subject to attack by three important canker rot fungi. All enter the trunk through dead branch stubs by germination of airborne spores. The cambium is killed, rough cankers are induced around the entry point, and the heartwood is decayed. The resulting cankers are calledhispidus, spiculosa, or Irpex, depending on the causal fungi-Polyporus hispidus, Poria spiculosa, and Spongipellis pachyodon respectively (21). Nuttall oak growing north of 35° latitude may be killed by oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum). Daily temperatures above 30° C (86° F) reduce development of the disease (20).
        娜塔櫟受三種根部潰瘍菌侵害。全部通過空氣傳播孢子到死枝或樹樁侵染樹干。潰瘍點周圍腐爛并殺死新生組織最終導致心材腐爛。粗毛黃孔菌和Spongipellis pachyodon 及Spongipellis pachyodon會導致三種不同的潰瘍病。娜塔櫟種植在北緯35度會被橡枯萎病殺死。日常溫度高于30℃會減少疾病的發生。
        Anthracnose (Gnomonia quercina) and Actinopelte leaf spot (Actinopelte dryina) cause defoliation in some years (26).
        炭疽病和葉斑病會在某些年份導致落葉。
         
        Special Uses 特殊應用
         
        Nuttall oak is an important species in green-tree reservoirs, where ducks feed on the acorns (10). Acorns contain 13 percent crude fat and 46 percent carbohydrates (4). In Louisiana, it is considered one of the best mast-producing species. Acorn crops rarely fail (11).
        娜塔櫟是重要儲備綠化樹種,橡子包含13%的天然脂肪和46%的碳水化合物。路易斯安那是娜塔櫟橡子的主產地。很少欠收。
        During periods of winter flooding, squirrels find a ready supply of acorns, since many acorns remain on the tree into January. Acorns are favored by deer and also eaten by turkeys.
        在冬季發大水期間,松鼠準備了充足的橡子可以吃到一月。鹿和火雞也很喜歡吃橡子。
         
        Genetics 遺傳

        No racial variations or hybrids have been reported. North of Memphis, TN, this tree is easily confused with Q. palustris (pin oak).
        沒有雜種和變種報道,田納西州的孟菲斯以北也有人叫娜塔櫟為沼生櫟(針櫟)。
        Literature Cited 引文(略)
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